spinTorsion

Spiral Wavefronts and Spin Filters.

 

1 Summary

Results from the wavelength experiment suggest that interference fringe changes correlate to interferometer bar spacings at multiples of 21.1 cm. This is the wavelength of the hydrogen electromagnetic radiation spectral line that is caused by changes in the energy state of atoms of hydrogen, the most abundant element in the universe. However it is not suggested that spin torsion radiation is electromagnetic as electromagnetics is currently understood.

A measurement technique which involves an experimenter rotating-on-the-spot at various positions between an interferometer and the first fringe that it creates suggests that spin torsion interference fringes have a spiral structure that rotates through 180 degrees between an interferometer and the fringe that it creates.

Spin polarisers that are spaced apart can be used to create spatial filters that can be used to block or pass spin torsion radiation. The filters rely on the fact that spin torsion radiation has a 21.1cm wavelength with a spiral wavefront. Such filters can be used to investigate the nature of torsion fields. The filters used in this experiment were designed to block 21.1 cm radiation but to pass radiation at other wavelengths. Using a similar arrangement other filters were designed to block 21.1 cm radiation that had clockwise wavefront rotation and to block 21.1 cm radiation that had counter clockwise wavefront rotation.

Use of the filters confirmed that a) torsion radiation has a helical form.  b) Torsion radiation from the Sun and from the galaxy have the same clockwise wavefront rotation.  c) Fringes at various distances are created by an interference effect between 21.1cm radiation from more than one source.


2. Spiral wavefronts

Fig.1.  Field rotation with Copper tube interferometer

Fig. 1 shows a view looking down on an interferometer that comprises two horizontally mounted Copper tubes one spaced above the other. When an investigator holding detector rods walks away from the interferometer towards the west the rods swing together at the first and subsequent fringe positions. These are spaced out equally and Fig. 1 just shows two of them.

If the investigator stands at the points shown by the position of the arrows in figure 1 and then rotates on the spot, the detector rods swing together when he or she is facing in the direction of the arrows.

 

 

Fig.2  Field rotation with Aluminium tube interferometer

 

For an interferometer constructed using Aluminium tubes the results are as shown in figure 2.

These results indicate that there is a spiral wavefront or interference pattern in the space between an interferometer and the fringes that it creates. The wavefront or interference pattern for an Aluminum tube interferometer is 180° degrees out of phase with that for a Copper tube interferometer.

 

 

3. Spin Filters

It has previously been established that polyethylene film acts as a spin polariser. It is possible to use various arrangements of spatially separated spin polarisers to create spin filters that can then be used to probe the structure of a Torsion field.

A set of filters based on spin polarisers were constructed in order to find out more about the apparent rotation effects shown in figures 1 and 2.  In particular there was a need to know whether a fringe distance was a complete cycle of some variable length wave or whether the effects seen in figure 1 and 2 were interference effects between radiation at a wavelength of 21.1cm from the two tubes of the interferometer and other sources.

A blocking filter

If two Spin Polarisers are placed in proximity to one another with the stretch direction of one sheet at right angles to the other then all the spin torsion effects that have been observed can be blocked.

A spatial bandstop filter

Fig.3  21cm bandstop filter

 

 

 

The filter shown in figure 3 blocks all radiation that has a 21.1 cm wavelength and is thus called a bandstop filter. Any other wavelength can theoretically pass through it.

Two Spin polarisers A and B are spaced apart by 1/4 of the 21.1cm wavelength. Polariser A has its stretch direction at right angles to the stretch direction of polariser B.

Incoming radiation will pass through polariser A if its wavefront is vertical at the point at which it is incident on polariser A . If the incoming radiation has a wavelength of 21.1 cm then by the time that it reaches polariser B the wavefront will have rotated by 90° and will be blocked by polariser B.

In practice it does not matter what the wavefront direction is when it arrives at A, it will always be blocked by the combined action of A and B.

 

Clockwise 21.1cm wavefront bandstop filter

filter
Fig. 4  Clockwise bandstop filter

The filter shown in figure 4 blocks all radiation that has a 21.1 cm wavelength with a clockwise rotating wavefront.

Polarisers A and B are spaced apart by 1/8 of the 21.1 wavelength being investigated. The stretch direction of polariser B is offset from that of polariser A by 45° as shown.

Incoming radiation that has its wave front vertical will pass through polariser A. As the wavefront passes between polariser A and polariser B it will rotate through an angle of 45°. If the radiation wavefront rotation direction is clockwise looking towards the source then, because of the alignment of polariser B, the wave front will be at an angle of 90° to its stretch direction and will be blocked.

If the incident radiation rotation direction is counter clockwise, then when the wave front reaches polariser B it will be aligned with its stretch direction and will pass through it.

In practice it does not matter what the wavefront direction is when it arrives at A, if it has a clockwise rotation direction it will always be blocked by the combined effect of A and B.

 

Counter clockwise 21.1cm wavefront bandstop filter

Fig. 5  Counter clockwise
bandstop filter

The filter shown in figure 5 blocks all radiation that has a 21.1 cm wavelength with a counter clockwise rotating wavefront.

The Spin Polarisers are arranged similarly to those in figure 4. The difference is that polariser B is arranged with its stretch direction at 90° to the direction shown in figure 4.

Incoming radiation that has its wave front vertical will pass through polariser A. As the wavefront passes between polariser A and polariser B it will rotate through an angle of 45 degrees. If the radiation rotation direction is counter clockwise looking towards the source, then it will arrive at polariser B at right angles to its stretch direction and will be blocked. If the incident wavefront rotation direction is clockwise, then when the wave front reaches polariser B it will be aligned with its stretch direction and will pass through.

 

4. Observations using spin filters

When a bandstop filter such as that shown in figure 3 was placed between an interferometer and an investigator, then no fringes were detected. The filter is only designed to block 21.1cm radiation. Any other wavelengths would pass through it.

 

filter
Fig.6  Filter arrangement

A bandstop filter was arranged to screen a small interferometer from the Sun as shown in figure 6. With the filter in place no fringes from the interferometer were observed, the effect being the same as that seen when two crossed Spin Polarisers were used in place of the bandstop filter.

The plane of the filter was then tilted so that the radiation passed at an angle between polarisers A and B. This caused the radiation path length between A and B to be greater that the 21.1cm half wavelength. It was observed that the filter no longer blocked the radiation and fringes from the small interferometer could be found.

 

The bandstop filter was then arranged so that its plane was at right angles to galactic longitude 90° and latitude 0° - the direction in which the Solar System is travelling through the galaxy. The small interferometer was screened from this radiation in a similar manner to that shown in figure 6 for the Sun. It was found that no fringes could be observed from the interferometer.

When a rotation selective filter was used, fringes could be detected for the clockwise bandstop filter and blocked by the counter clockwise filter. The radiation wavefront thus had a counterclockwise rotation.

5. The nature of spin torsion fringes

If we wish to know how fringes are created we need to distinguish between two possibilities.

a) A single cycle of torsion radiation exists between an interferometer and the point at which the first fringe can be detected. If this is true then the radiation must usually have a wavelength much greater than 21.1cm with its actual value being a function of the spacing between the interferometer bars.

b) The fringe is caused by interference between 21.1cm radiation emitted from each of the interferometer bars



Fig 7.  Fringe structure investigation

 

To investigate these possibilities an experimental arrangement as shown in fig 7 was used.

The interferometer used vertical tubes c and d with A and B comprising a clockwise 21.1cm bandstop filter as shown in fig.4

The measurement track e f was aligned in an east west direction

 

 

Consider a clockwise rotating wavefront emitted by interferometer c d in the direction from e to f. The wavefront will pass through polariser A and will rotate 45° clockwise before it reaches polariser B. At B it will be blocked since the wavefront will be at right angles to the polariser.

If the radiation from interferometer c d has a counter clockwise wavefront then the wavefront will rotate 45° counter-clockwise before it reaches B and will pass through polariser B

Any radiation that has a greater wavelength than 21.1cm will not be blocked because its wavefront rotation between polarisers A an B will not be sufficient to meet polariser B at 90° to its stretch direction.

The experiment took place in the period between the Spring equinox and the time that the fringe distance changeover took place in late April (see the Inverse effects experiment). During this period it is possible to artificially switch the fringe distance from its winter value to its summer by placing a north/south aligned Spin Polariser below the interferometer (see the Equinox experiment) This allows the wavefront rotation direction from the interferometer to be changed at will in this period.

What was observed was that no fringe could be observed at position f along the measurement track e f. This meant that the filter was blocking the radiation. When the wavefront rotation direction was reversed by a north/south aligned Spin Polariser beneath the interferometer a fringe could be observed at position f and thus was being passed by the filter.

These results indicate that the radiation between the interferometer and the position that a fringe can be detected at f has a spiral wavefront that rotates through 45° between polariser A and B in λ/8 (21.1/8 cm) and thus has a wavelength of 21.1 cm. This is an indication that the fringe is formed by interference between the waves emitted from the two spaced interferometer tubes.

 

6. Discussion

An indication that the wavefront of spin torsion radiation rotates as the wave progresses (see figures 1 & 2) led to the creation of 21.1cm bandstop and rotation selective bandstop filters.

The result of using these filters in the path of the torsion radiation showed that the distance between an interferometer and the fringes that it created was full of 21.1cm radiation and that no other wavelengths appeared to be responsible for creating the fringes. This leads to the view that the field rotation effects shown in figures 1 & 2 are rotation of the interference patterns created by interferometers rather than rotations of the radiation wavefronts.

The same radiation appears to be emitted by the Sun and be present in the direction of galactic longitude 90° and lattitude 0°

Fig. 8  Spiral wave front

From the observations, the Torsion field appears to have a rotating spiral wavefront similar to that shown in figure 8. The helicity of 21.1cm spin torsion radiation suggests that the wave front of the field is similar to that of the wave front observed in optics when a laser beam is caused to have orbital angular momentum by passing it through a forked diffraction grating such as that in figure 9.

Spin polarisers formed from anisotropic materials such as polyethylene are stretched in one direction due to the manufacturing process. This stretching caused dislocations in the sheet [1] [2] that closely resemble the dislocation in a forked diffraction grating.

forked grating
Fig. 9  Forked Diffraction Grating

 

One of the differences between a torsion field and an electromagnetic field is that torsion fields appear to have the ability to pass through the planet unattenuated. Because of similarities between the effect of Spin Polarisers on torsion fields and the effect of forked diffraction gratings on laser beams it seems possible that other known properties of electromagnetic optical orbital angular momentum may also apply to torsion fields. Investigation of such properties with respect to torsion fields may provide useful further insights into torsion field properties.

 

 

 

7. References

[1] Miles Padgett: Optical tweezers and twisted beams of light. SPIETV May 31st 2012
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2hdKXMRKSY8

[2] Adrian Sutton, Imperial College
What do plastic bags have in common with metal?   Physics World 100 Second Science video series, May 22, 2013  https://physicsworld.com/cws/article/multimedia/2013/may/22/what-do-plastic-bags-have-in-common-with-metal

 

 

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