Electrons, magnets and spin torsion generators

1. Summary

The experiment on effects caused by rotation of the planet shows how a Spin Torsion Generator (STG) interacts with the fields created by the rotation of the planet. This experiment takes the same Spin Torsion Generator and adds a magnet to create a magnetic field that the STG rotates through. The results of the experiment demonstrate that magnetic fields affect the interference fringe distance generated by the STG and that the direction of rotation of the spin torsion field wavefront generated by the STG can be changed by reversing the applied magnetic field.

The fact that the spin torsion fields are affected by magnetic fields suggests that it is electrons in the rotating mass of the STG that are creating the spin torsion field. Electrons have the property of spin. Modern physics regards this as a quantum property rather than actual physical spin. This is partly because if electrons had real physical spin the surfaces of charged particles would have to be moving much faster than the speed of light in order to produce the field that can be observed. This is forbidden by Relativity that says that nothing can travel faster than light. Given that the superluminal propagation experiment appears to show superluminal spin torsion radiation from the Sun it may be that the abandonment of electron spin as real spin may was a mistake.



  2. Conductive Spin Torsion Generator and magnet arrangement.

Figure 1 shows spin torsion generator a. It has an aluminium alloy rotating mass which is set in the horizontal plane and rotates in a counter clockwise direction. The rotating mass of the STG passes between the pole pieces c and d of a large barium iron oxide ceramic magnet e of dimension 150 mm x 100 mm x 25mm. The pole pieces are of 1.4 mm painted bent steel spaced 6cm apart with a measured field between poles of 6000 micro Tesla. Initially c is the north pole and d the south. The magnet can be reversed so that c becomes the south pole and e the north.

An MDF sheet with crossed polyethylene spin polarisers is placed beneath the STG to eliminate any effects from the polarised mass below.

Fig. 1  Spin torsion generator with magnets

3. Measurements

As in the planet rotation experiment the STG creates interference fringes. Measurements of fringe distance were made to the west of the STG along an east-west track using copper detector rods.

i)   Measurements were first made without the magnet assembly in place to establish a basic fringe distance at the particular time of day of the experiment. Added mass in the form of washers was placed on the casing of the STG to cause the fringe distance to increase to around 3m from its initial low value. This was done to make it easier to examine the structure of the interference fringes. After the fringe distance had been measured a rotate-on-the-spot measurement was made to determine the direction of the spiral rotation of the fringe.

ii)   The magnet assembly was put in place, initially with c as the north pole and d the south pole. The fringe distance was measured and a rotate-on- the-spot measurement was made. The top of the STG was then covered with a 21.1cm spatial bandstop filter. Two filters were tried, one blocked 21.1cm radiation with a clockwise wavefront and the other with a counterclockwise wavefront. With a filter in place the presence or absence of a fringe was noted.

iii)   The ferrite magnet e was turned around so that c became the south pole and d the north pole. Again fringe distance and rotate-on-the-spot measurements were made and the effect of the spatial filters placed above the STG were noted.

4. Results

Case Configuration Fringe distance rotate-on-spot Filter effect
1 No magnet in place 3.1m rods cross to north a passes, b blocks
2 Magnet in place - north pole at top 1.7m rods cross to south a blocks, b passes
3 Magnet in pace - south pole at top 1.7m rods cross to north a passes, b blocks

Spatial bandstop filter a blocks 21.1cm radiation when the wavefront rotates counterclockwise looking towards the source. Filter b blocks the radiation when the wavefront rotates clockwise looking towards the source.

Fig. 2

Figure 2 shows a plan view of the STG. In case 1 and case 3 of the results, when the investigator stands at the first fringe and then rotates on the spot, the rods cross to the west. When the investigator moves to the mid point between the fringe and the STG and again rotates, the rods cross to the north. Finally if this is repeated at a position in line with the STG the rods cross to the east. What this shows is that moving towards the STG radiation source from west to east the torsion field has a clockwise rotation.

In both cases 1 and 3 when a 21cm spatial bandstop filter is placed on top of the STG, No 1 filter passes the radiation and so must also be seeing clockwise rotation of the wavefront.

Fig. 3

Figure 3 shows what happens in case 2. The rotate-on-the-spot technique causes the detector rods to cross to the north at the midpoint between the STG and the interference fringe. This means that moving towards the STG from the fringe, the radiation wavefront must be counterclockwise.

When the No 2 spatial bandstop filter is placed on top of the STG the filter passes the radiation and so must also be seeing counterclockwise rotation of the wavefront.

In case 1 of the results, no magnets were present, however the results in terms of rotate-on-spot and filter tests suggest that the STG had a north pole of a magnetic field below it. One possible explanation for this is that in the city of Edinburgh in the UK where the experiment took place, the magnetic dip angle was approximately 70 degrees down from the horizontal towards the north pole. The north pole was thus below the horizontal plane of the STG and the south pole was above it.


5. Non conductive Spin Torsion Generator

A non conductive spin torsion generator was designed and supplied by A. N. Coll. The rotating mass was an acrylic disk which was rotated at approximately 1800rpm by a compressed air source which was arranged to direct a jet of air to the edge of the mass to cause it to rotate.

As it rotated the generator created fringes, however when the rotating mass of the disk was arranged to pass between the poles of the magnet as shown in figure 1, no change to any fringe distance could be observed



This is an important result. It demonstrates that the particles that cause spin torsion fields can themselves be affected by a magnetic field. The only particles known to do this are electrons and because it is made of metal the disk of the conductive spin torsion generator has plenty of free electrons. The non conductive spin torsion generator does not however have free electrons and is unaffected by the magnetic field. If particle in the nucleus of an atom caused the spin torsion field then it would be reasonable to suppose that the conductive and non conductive spin torsion generators would behave in the same way, but they don't.

Spin polarisers provide further evidence that electrons cause spin torsion fields. If two polyethylene sheet spin polarisers are placed together, with the stretch direction of one at right angles to the other then the arrangement will block spin torsion fields. However if the spin polarisers are of rolled aluminium sheet they will only block spin torsion fields if they are insulated from one another. The latter case implies that it is a flow of electrons between the polarisers that prevents them from working if they are not insulated from one another.

Results from the planet rotation experiment show that as the spin plane of an STG becomes aligned with the spin plane of the equator the fringe distance reduces. The same logic can be applied to the results from this experiment where the rotation of the the STG causes some of the particle spins within the rotating mass of the STG to align with its plane of rotation.

The suggestion is that the particles have no preferred clockwise or counter clockwise direction of spin. A simplified way of visualising this is shown in fig 4. where a is the rotating spin torsion generator and particles b, and d rotate counterclockwise and particle c rotates clockwise.

Fig. 4 Particle alignment in an STG

When a magnetic field is applied it is suggested that the rotation direction of the particles align so that for example particle c in figure 4 reverses direction to correspond the particles b and d.  When more particle spin directions are aligned the fringe distance reduces.

When the magnetic field is reversed all the particles reverse their direction of rotation but the fringe distance is unchanged.


5. Implications for electron properties

In experiments carried out in 1960 Stern and Gerlach [1] found that electrons acted as if they were spinning very rapidly and that the spin produced a magnetic field called a magnetic moment. However calculations [2] of the magnetic moment from electron spin show that it is much larger than expected and would require a frequency of rotation of 2.463 x 10^45. This is 970 times the speed of light. Relativity states that nothing can exceed the speed of light and mainly for that reason the idea that the spin property of electrons was produced by actual physical spin was abandoned. Spin is now regarded as a quantum property of electrons.

Electrons are now regarded as elementary point particles that behave as if they have spinning charge. When an electron passes through a magnetic field the field forces the electron to be either "spin-up" or "spin-down" these being the only two spin states that an electron can be in with respect to a specified axis. In the current experiment this appears to be what is observed. However the superluminal propagation experiment does suggest that spin torsion fields are superluminal and so it looks as if it might have been a mistake to abandon the idea that the electron does not have physical spin properties.

6. References

[] https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stern-Gerlach_experiment

[] https://bearsoft.co.uk/new_site/phys/qm-spin.pdf


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