The wavelength of spin torsion radiation


1. Summary

The standard interferometer constructed of two 1m lengths of copper tube separated by 60 cm gives fringe distances of 2m in the winter period and 6m in the summer period. When the spacing of the tubes is changed to a different value, different fringe distances are obtained. An investigation of such changes has been made both by changing interferometer tube spacing and by reconfiguring the interferometer to its minimal form by using small masses rather than copper tubes. In all of these configurations it was found that as the distance between the tubes or masses was changed over the range of 5 to 90cm, peaks occurred when the distance between them was a multiple of 21.1 cm. This distance is significant since it is the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation created by a change in the energy state of the atoms of hydrogen, the most common element in the universe. In spectrometry this wavelength is known as the hydrogen line.

Fig 1.  Horizontal mass arrangement

2. Spacing experiment

Figure 1 shows the arrangement of the two masses. These are 12mm high and 16 mm in diameter. These dimensions are not critical but both should have the same weight. The masses are held in posion by small brass machine screws and areti supported on a horizontal brass rod which is itself supported by a vertical brass rod. The masses themselves are of Zinc but the material is not critical to the experimental results.

The spacing between the masses was increased in increments from 5 to 95 cm. At each increment the fringe was located using detector rods and the fringe distance measured.

3. Spacing experiment observations

Figure 2 and 3 below show that there are peaks (or troughs in the case of the red plot) in the measured fringe distances at multiples of 21.1cm. These peaks appear to indicate a resonance between the incoming radiation and the separation between the two masses. 21.1 cm is significant because it is the wavelength of electromagnetic radiation emitted by hydrogen and is caused by change in the energy state of atoms of hydrogen, the most common element in the universe.

The two plots in figure 2 were obtained by different investigators and are almost mirror images of one another. It has been found to be possible to invert the plot observed by any particular investigator by the addition of a small mass to the investigators person. This reinforces the view that the creation of fringe lines is a function both of the external apparatus (such as the dual mass setup described) and also of the investigator who appears to be an integral part of the experiment in addition to being the observer.

Fig 2.  Peaks occur at 21.1 and 42.2 cm











Fig 3.  More Peaks at 63.3 and 84.4cm











Fig 4.  An interferometer arrangement

Similar peaks to those in figures 1, 2 and 3 can be observed by changing the spacing of the tubes in an interferometer. Figure 4 shows an arrangement of two 60cm long 13mm diameter copper service tubes. These are laid on the ground parallel to one another and the spacing between them incremented. Measurements of the fringe distance from the midpoint of the bars to the position of the detected fringe are made at each increment.


Fig 5.  60cm Copper tube resonances


Figure 5 shows the results obtained from the parallel Copper tubes shown in figure 4 when the tube spacings are changed. Again peaks at multiples of 21.1cm occur but unlike the results shown in figures 2 and 3 there is an upward expansion of the graph. This is thought to be caused by interactions between the interferometer and the body and clothing of the experimenter.




Fig 6.  100cm Copper tube resonances


Figure 6 shows spacing results obtained from the arrangement of figure 4 but with 100cm long copper tubes. The upward expansion of the peaks at the right of the graph is much more pronounced than for the 60 cm tubes. It still shows local peaks at multiples of 21.1cm





4. Discussion.

Fig 7.  A vertical dual mass arrangement

The results shown in figure 5 and 6 show peaks at 21.1cm. The peaks are superimposed on a rising curve, believed to be an effect of the the body of the experimenter. The results in figures 2 and 3 where the dual mass arrangement shown in figure 1 has been used do not show this effect. Although figure 1 shows the two masses supported by a brass support it has been found that the simplified arrangement shown in figure 7 also gives similar results. In figure 7 instead of using a brass support, the two masses are hung from above using a monofilament. 0.15 inch (0.37mm) fishing line has been found to be suitable for this application. All the results appear to indicate a significant response effect at multiples of 21.1cm.


Note. This experiment has been carried out at ground level. Difficulties have occurred when attempting the experiment in high mass buildings and at levels above ground level.




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