spinTorsion

Dipoles

 

1. Summary

Dipole antennas are commonly used to receive and transmit radio and television signals and their efficiency at receiving particular radio and television wavelengths is dependent on their length.

Because wavelength experiment has indicated that the wavelength of spin torsion radiation is 21.1cm it is possible to investigate whether the tubes of an interferometer behave as dipoles for that wavelength of spin torsion radiation.

Comparison of the effect of using different length copper tubes in an interferometer show that just as for dipoles used for radio and television signals, the copper tubes do appear to act as dipoles for spin torsion radiation.


2. Introduction - dipoles

Dipole antennas are commonly used to receive and transmit radio and television signals. A dipole itself radiates and receives electromagnetic signals equally in all directions. Television aerials (antennae) that incorporate dipoles can most commonly be seen on rooftops where the single element which is the dipole itself is usually accompanied by a variety of other elements. These can be in various arrangements in order to improve the directionality of the antenna and thus the intensity of the signal transmitted or received in a particular direction.

Fig 1.  Dipole responses

 

Fig 1 shows how dipoles of various lengths respond to an incoming electromagnetic wave.

Fig 1a shows the response when the length of the dipole is the same as the wavelength of an incoming electromagnetic wave. This dipole is called a full wave dipole. At any instance in time potential Pa and Pb are equal. The potential difference between the two ends of the dipole is Pa-Pb = 0 and the dipole does not respond to the radiation. This holds true for any dipole length that is an even multiple of the half wavelength of the radiation.

The length of the dipole as in fig1b is half the wavelength of the incoming radiation. At any instance in time potential Pa and Pb have opposite polarities, the potential difference between the two ends is Pa+Pb and the dipole gives a maximal response. This holds true for dipole lengths that are odd multiples of the half wavelength of the radiation.

Fig1c shows a dipole of an intermediate length, here chosen for illustrative purposes as three quarters of a wavelength. In this case there is a response from the dipole but it is not as strong as the response from a half wave dipole

 

3. Interferometers as dipoles

Fig 2.  Single support interferometer

Previous results from the wavelength experiment indicate that the wavelength of spin torsion radiation is 21.1cm (λ). This experiment addresses the question of whether an interferometer tube behaves as a dipole. If it does it would be expected that there would be a significant difference between the response from an interferometer tube cut to an odd multiple of half wavelengths of 21.1cm and the behaviour of a tube cut to an even number of half wavelengths.

To investigate this the interferometer shown in fig. 2 was used. The interferometer has a single central wooden support with two nylon pipe clips which are fixed using machine screws, allowing the tubes to be easily interchangeable. The lower tube was mounted at a height of 14cm and the upper tube at 30.5cm. The only significance of these spacings was that no multiples of 21.1 cm (the wavelength under investigation) were used. The interferometer tubes were aligned north/south and measurements were made along an east/west track. Three pairs of copper tubes were used with each pair fitted to the centre support clips in turn. The tube lengths of the fitted tubes were the only change made to the experimental arrangement. For each tube length, response distance measurements were made.


4. Tube length observations

The table below shows the responses obtained when each pair of copper tubes were fitted to the interferometer in turn. The 21.1cm wavelength is denoted as λ

Tube length (cm) Wavelength multiple Response (m)
52.7 5 λ/2 Yes
50 4.7 λ/2 Yes
42.2 4 λ/2 None

 

 

 


                   Table 1. Tube length responses

5. Comments

The results shown in table 1 show that when the tube lengths were an odd multiple of λ/2 the interferometer behaved in its normal manner. When the interferometer tubes were cut to an even multiple of λ/2 no fringes could be detected. This provides further evidence to support previous observations that the spin torsion radiation wavelength is 21.1cm although it is not suggested that spin torsion radiation is electromagnetic as we know it.

All chemical elements fall into one of two groups in their response to spin torsion radiation. These groups are known as red and blue groups. In carrying out this experiment it is essential that the interferometer tubes and the detector rods belong to the same group. What this means from a practical viewpoint is that if copper interferometer bars are used, detector rods should be either copper or steel. If this is not the case then spurious results may be obtained.

The results from this experiment suggest that for maximum sensitivity detector rods should be held an odd number of half wavelengths apart. In practice this means trying to holding them approximately 32cm apart and avoiding holding them 21cm apart. No dependencies on the lengths of detector rods have yet been found.

 

 

© Neil Duffy 2022   Creative commons logo